I see trans-humanism as a philosophy that use the latest technological tools to fulfill its goals; it is a contemporary surrogate at the millennial belief of transcending death and acquiring perfection.
Both religious theological frameworks and quasi-religious biotechnological fantasies suggest that aging and fragility can be conquered and death overcome (Leigh Turner, “Biotechnology as Religion”, Nature Biotechnology, Volume 22, Nr. 6, June 2004, p. 659)
Would be an unforgivable mistake to be critical to the dangers of religious beliefs without being mindful of the dangers hidden in the womb of the utopian promises of transhumanism (should not surprise us that most of the sci-fi literature is dystopian, not utopian).
Despite its philosophical shallowness, transhumanist project will continue to shape the culture of post-industrialist societies throughout the 21st century. Citizens of liberal democracies in particular must be aware of the challenges posed by the transhumanist vision and ponder who should determine the future of humanity, and how should the decision-making process take place. (Hava Tirosh-Samuelson: “The Transhumanist Project: Assessment and Critique”, Metanexus Institute)
A must read book: H+/-: Transhumanism and Its Critics, Gregory R. Hansell & William Grassie (Eds.), Metanexus Institute, 2011